Pain Medicine

Pain management is a discipline of medicine that employs an interdisciplinary approach to lighten chronic pain and improve quality of life for those who suffer from it. Medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses, and dentists are all part of a typical pain management team. Other mental health specialists and massage therapists may be part of the team. Pain can go away rapidly once the underlying trauma or pathology has healed, and it can be treated with analgesics and (rarely) anxiolytics by a single practitioner. 

Medicine aids and speeds healing by treating injuries and diseases. It alleviates suffering during treatment, recovery, and death by treating uncomfortable symptoms like pain.

Pharmacological measures, such as analgesics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants; interventional procedures, such as physical therapy, physical exercise, and the application of ice or heat; and psychological measures, such as biofeedback and cognitive behavioural therapy, are all used to treat chronic pain.

Examples of nonprescription pain medications include:

Acetaminophen (Tylenol), Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Naproxen (Aleve)

Examples of prescription medications include the following:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs):

Diclofenac (Voltaren), Diflunisal (Dolobid), Etodolac (Lodine), Fenoprofen (Nalfon), Flurbiprofen (Ansaid), Ibuprofen (Motrin), Indomethacin (Indocin, Indo-Lemmon), Ketorolac (Toradol), Mefenamic acid (Ponstel), Meloxicam (Mobic), Nabumetone (Relafen), Naproxen (Naprosyn, Anaprox), Oxaprozin (Daypro), Piroxicam (Feldene), Sulindac (Clinoril), and Tolmetin (Tolectin). 

COX-2 inhibitor:

Celecoxib (Celebrex)

Opioid analgesics:

Acetaminophen with codeine, Buprenorphine (Butrans), Fentanyl transdermal patches (Duragesic), Hydrocodone with acetaminophen, Hydrocodone with ibuprofen (Vicoprofen),Hydrocodone (Zohydro), Hydromorphone (Exalgo), Meperidine (Demerol, Merpergan), Methadone (Dolophine), Morphine and morphine sustained release (MS-Contin, Avinza, Kadian), Oxycodone sustained release (OxyContin), Oxycodone with acetaminophen (Percocet), Oxycodone with aspirin (Percodan), Oxycodone with ibuprofen (Combunox), Oxymorphone (Opana, Opana ER), Pentazocine (Talwin,), Propoxyphene with aspirin, propoxyphene with acetaminophen, Tapentadol (Nucynta, Nucynta ER), and Tramadol.

Mixed opioid agonist/antagonists:

Pentazocine/naloxone (Talwin NX), Butorphanol and Nalbuphine (Nubain)

Amitriptyline (Elavil), Bupropion (Wellbutrin), Desipramine (Norpramin), Duloxetine (Cymbalta), Imipramine (Tofranil), and Venlafaxine (Effexor)


Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Clonazepam (Klonopin), Gabapentin (Neurontin), Lamotrigine (Lamictal), Pregabalin (Lyrica), Tiagabine (Gabitril), Topiramate and (Topamax)

Fibromyalgia medication:

Milnacipran (Savella)

Alprazolam (Xanax), Diazepam (Valium), Lorazepam (Ativan) and Triazolam (Halcion)
Muscle relaxants:
Baclofen (Lioresal), Carisoprodol (Soma), Chlorzoxazone (Parafon Forte, DSC), Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), Dantrolene (Dantrium), Metaxalone (Skelaxin), Methocarbamol (Robaxin), Orphenadrine (Norflex), Tizanidine (Zanaflex)


Cortisone, Prednisone, Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Methylprednisolone and Triamcinolone

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